Contents

        Editorial Board, iii
        Contributors, v

        Introduction,  xv

        By Gregory H. Branham, Jeffrey S. Dover, Shilpi Khetarpal, Smita R. Ramanadham, and Allan E. Wulc

        Preface: For Aesthetic Surgeons, by Aesthetic Surgeons,  xvii

        By Gregory H. Branham, Jeffrey S. Dover, Shilpi Khetarpal, Smita R. Ramanadham, and Allan E. Wulc

        Muscle Toning and Strengthening Through Electromagnetic Stimulation and Direct Current,  1

        By Courtney Gwinn, Leah Spring, Elizabeth Tanzi, and Jeffrey S. Dover
         Introduction,  1
         Electromagnetic muscle stimulation,  2
         Evidence,  3
         Electromagnetic muscle stimulation for gluteal toning,  4
         Electromagnetic muscle stimulation plus cryolipolysis,  4
         Direct current,  4
        Pathophysiology,  4
        Evidence,  5
         Summary,  5
         Clinics care points,  6
         Relevant disclosures,  6

        Laser Treatment of Scars,  9

        By Ladan Afifi and Sara R. Hogan
         Introduction,  9
         Scar characteristics,  9
        Color,  9
        Topography,  11
        Contractures,  13
        Maturity,  13
         Scar subtypes,  14
        Acne,  14
        Surgical Scars,  14
        Burns and Traumatic Scars,  16
        Scars Caused by Skin Disease or Lesions,  17
         Evaluation of patients,  17
         Approach,  19
         Considerations,  19
        Laser Energy and Treatment Zone Density,  19
        Higher Skin Phototypes,  20
         Summary,  20
         Clinics care points,  21
         Disclosure,  21

        Radiofrequency for Fat Removal and Skin Tightening of the Body,  25

        By Erez Dayan, Joseph Marte, and Spero Theodorou
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Preoperative steps,  25
        Analysis,  25
         Operative steps,  26
         Postoperative care,  27
         Summary,  27
         Clinics care points,  28
         Disclosure,  28

        Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery: Where Do We Stand Now?,  29

        By Carolyn M. Stull, Jeffrey S. Dover, and Omer Ibrahim
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction: nature of the problem,  29
         Surgical technique,  30
        Preoperative Planning,  30
        Preparation and Patient Positioning,  31
        Procedural Approach, Step 1, Step 2, and so Forth (Including Video),  31
        Immediate Postprocedural Care,  32
         Clinical results in the literature,  32
        Dysplasia,  32
        Scars,  32
        Anesthetics,  33
        Hyperhidrosis,  33
        Aesthetics,  33
        Melasma,  33
        Alopecia,  34
         Potential risks and complications,  34
        Local Cutaneous Reactions,  34
        Systemic Reactions and Toxicity,  34
         Clinics care points,  35
         Summary,  35
         Disclosure,  35

        Social Media/Electronic Media and Aesthetic Medicine,  39

        By Hannah Kopelman, Jacqueline Watchmaker, Ross Kopelman, Daniel Callaghan, and David Kim
         Introduction,  39
         Social media basics,  39
         The terms,  40
         The platforms,  40
         Impact of social media on aesthetic medicine,  41
        Social Mediaâs Impact on Trends in Aesthetic Medicine,  41
        Social Media Have Brought Awareness to and Acceptance of Cosmetic Procedures,  42
        The Negative Effects of Social Media on Aesthetic Patients,  42
         Uses of social media/electronic media for aesthetic providers,  42
        Marketing and Patient Acquisition,  43
        Education,  43
        Networking and Collaboration,  43
         Best practices: professionalism, privacy, and legal considerations,  44
         Summary,  44
         Clinics care points,  44
         Disclosure,  44

        Phenol Croton Oil Peels,  47

        By James E. Zins and Jacob Grow
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  47
         Chemical peel background,  47
         Anatomy/pathogenesis,  48
         Patient selection,  50
         Preoperative planning,  51
         Technique,  51
        Safety Considerations,  51
        Anesthesia,  51
        General Principles of Phenol-Croton Oil Peeling,  52
        Periorbital Region,  52
        Perioral Region,  53
         Postoperative care,  53
         Results,  53
         Complications and management,  53
         Summary,  56
         Clinics care points,  56
         Disclosure,  56

        Stem Cells and Exosomes in Aesthetic Medicine,  59

        By Nina Semsarzadeh, Wyatt Andrasik, and Shilpi Khetarpal
         Introduction,  59
        Stem Cells,  59
        Exosomes,  60
         Clinical results in the literature,  60
        Stem Cells,  60
        Exosomes,  64
         Potential complications and legal considerations,  67
         Summary,  67
         Clinics care points,  68
         Disclosure,  68

        Noninvasive Rhinoplasty,  71

        By Yusuf M. Agamawi, Kasra Ziai, Jessyka G. Lighthall, and Scott G. Walen
         Introduction,  71
         Anatomy,  72
         Patient selection,  72
         Injection filler materials,  72
         Techniques,  75
        Basic Principles,  75
        Nasal Subsites,  75
         Postprocedure care,  77
         Complications,  77
         Outcomes,  79
         Summary,  80
         Clinics care points,  80
         Disclosure,  80

        Rejuvenation of the Chest,  83

        By Sean Z. Wu, Douglas C. Wu, and Sabrina G. Fabi
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  83
         Characteristics of aging chest skin,  83
         Clinical evaluation,  83
         Special considerations,  84
         Injectable therapy,  84
        Soft Tissue Augmentation,  84
        Neuromodulation,  86
        Sclerotherapy,  86
        Adverse Events Associated with Injection Therapy,  86
         Chemical peels,  87
         Energy-based devices,  87
        Intense Pulsed Light,  87
        Vascular Lasers,  88
        Short-Pulsed Lasers,  88
        Nonablative Fractional Lasers,  89
        Ablative Fractional Lasers,  89
        Photodynamic Therapy,  90
        Microfocused Ultrasound,  91
        Fractional Radiofrequency,  91
         Summary,  92
         Clinics care points,  92
         Disclosures,  92

        Combination Treatment Approach to Melasma,  97

        By Emily L. Guo, Jordan V. Wang, Roy G. Geronemus, and Paul M. Friedman
         Background,  97
         Combination therapy,  98
         Risk factor reduction,  98
        Photoprotection,  98
        Hormonal Therapies,  98
         Topical therapies,  98
        Hydroquinone,  98
        Retinoids,  99
        Triple Combination Creams,  99
        Azelaic Acid,  100
        Kojic Acid,  100
        Tranexamic Acid,  100
         Systemic therapy,  101
        Tranexamic Acid,  101
         Procedures,  102
        Chemical Peels,  102
        Microneedling,  103
        Intense Pulsed Light,  103
        Q-Switched Lasers,  103
        Picosecond Lasers,  103
        Nonablative Fractional Lasers,  104
        Pulsed Dye Laser,  104
        Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery,  105
         Summary,  105
         Clinics care points,  106
         Disclosures,  106

        Cosmetic Practices in the COVID-19 Era,  109

        By Shanthi Narla, Jacqueline Watchmaker, David M. Ozog, and Thomas E. Rohrer
         Introduction,  109
         The science behind transmission, masks, and ventilation,  109
        Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2,  109
        Masks and Respirators,  110
        Ventilation,  111
        Upper Room Disinfection Using UV-C,  111
         Office protocols and guidelines in the COVID-19 era,  111
        Screening of Patients and Health Care Personnel,  111
        Appointment Scheduling,  112
        Avoidance of Waiting Rooms,  113
        Social Distancing,  114
         An exposure occurs at work—now what?,  115
        What Is Classified as an Exposure?,  115
        What Are the Work Restrictions and Quarantine Requirements for Asymptomatic Health Care Personnel with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Exposure.,?  115
        Should the Exposed Health Care Personnel Be Tested for COVID-19? Can Postexposure Testing Be Used to Allow Health Care Personnel to Return to Work Before 14 Days?.,  115
        A Health Care Worker Develops a Fever and Cough–What Next?,  116
         Precautions related to specific cosmetic procedures and body site,  116
        Risk Stratification of Procedures,  116
        Head and Neck Procedures,  117
        Trunk and Extremity Procedures,  118
        Injectables,  118
        Laser and Energy-Based Treatments,  118
        Electrosurgery,  118
        Microneedling, Microdermabrasion, Dermaplaning, Chemical Peels,  118
         Patient volume and aesthetic trends,  118
         Summary,  119
         Clinics care points,  119

        Expanding Indications for Fat Transfer to the Breast Beyond Reconstruction: Natural Augmentation, Tuberous Breast Correction, Implant Exchange,  123

        By Sarah A. Mess and Ashley N. Amalfi
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  124
         Lipoaugmentation,  125
        Preoperative,  125
        Harvest Sites,  126
        Technique,  128
        Postoperative Care,  129
        Complications,  130
         Correction of asymmetry/tuberous breast,  130
        Technique,  131
        Complications,  131
         Exchange of implant for fat,  131
        Technique,  132
        Postoperative,  132
        Complications,  132
         Breast reconstruction with fat,  133
         Summary,  133
         Disclosures,  134
         Clinics care points,  134

        Hair Restoration—Nonsurgical and Surgical Approaches,  137

        By Farah Moustafa and Nicole Rogers
         Introduction: nature of the problem,  137
         Nonsurgical treatments of hair restoration,  137
        Medical Therapy,  137
         Platelet-rich plasma,  139
        Preoperative Planning,  139
        Preparation and Patient Positioning,  140
        Procedural Approach,  140
         Surgical hair restoration,  140
        Preoperative Planning,  141
        Preparation and Patient Positioning,  141
        Procedural Approach,  141
        Graft Placement,  145
        Postoperative Care and Follow-up,  146
        Complications,  148
         Clinics care points,  150
         Disclosure,  151

        Skin Care in the Facelift Patient,  153

        By Kailash Kapadia, Lauren Otaguro, Haripriya Ayyala, and Smita Ramanadham
         Introduction: wound healing and the aging skin,  153
        Wound Healing,  153
        Intrinsic Aging,  153
        Extrinsic Aging,  154
         Skin care agents,  154
        Cleanser,  154
        Moisturizer,  155
        Sunscreen,  156
        Hydroxy Acids,  156
        Antioxidants,  156
        Pigment Lighteners,  156
         The facelift patient,  157
        Preoperative Skin Care,  157
        Postoperative Skin Care,  158
         Skin resurfacing adjuncts for facelift patients,  158
        Laser Resurfacing,  158
        Chemical Peels,  158
        Mechanical Resurfacing: Dermabrasion, Microdermabrasion, and Microneedling,  158
         Summary,  159
         Clinics care points,  159
         Disclosure,  159

        Augmentation Mastopexy: Challenging Dogma to Produce Long-Term Aesthetic Results,  161

        By Bao Tram (Cassie) Nghiem, William Koenig, and Ashley N. Amalfi
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  161
         Surgical technique,  162
        Patient Selection,  162
        Surgical Markings,  163
        Positioning and Prep,  164
        Procedural Approach,  164
        Immediate Postprocedural Care,  166
         Rehabilitation and recovery,  166
         Clinical results in the literature,  166
         Complications,  166
         Management,  169
         Summary,  171
         Disclosure,  172

        Reverse Abdominoplasty,  175

        By Carrie A. Houssock
         Introduction,  175
         Surgical technique,  177
        Preoperative Planning,  177
        Preparation and Patient Positioning,  177
        Procedural Approach,  177
         Immediate postprocedural care,  179
         Rehabilitation and recovery,  179
         Potential complications, risks, benefits, and limits,  179
        Risks and Potential Complications,  179
         Benefits,  179
         Limits,  179
         Summary,  179
         Clinics care points,  180
         Disclosure,  180

        360° Abdominoplasty: A Circumferential Approach to Contouring of the Abdomen,  183

        By Ashley N. Amalfi, William J. Koenig, and Kathryn E.H. Skibba
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  183
        Nature of the Problem,  183
        Anatomic Considerations,  183
        Lipoabdominoplasty Debate,  184
         Surgical markings,  186
         Surgical technique,  187
         Immediate postprocedural care,  189
         Rehabilitation and recovery,  190
         Managing potential complications,  190
        Local Complications,  190
        Systemic Complications,  193
         Before and after results,  193
         Clinical results in the literature,  194
         Summary,  194
         Clinics care points,  194
         Disclosures,  194

        Update on Secondary Facelift Surgery,  197

        By Nicholas R. Sinclair, Demetrius M. Coombs, and James E. Zins
         Introduction,  197
         General considerations,  197
        Patient Demographics,  197
        Cervicofacial Analysis,  197
        General Surgical Principles,  198
         Specific secondary deformities,  198
        Unacceptable Scarring and Hairline Distortions,  198
        Alopecia,  198
         Ear deformities,  198
        Tragal Distortion,  198
        Pixie Ear Deformity,  198
         Cheek deformities,  199
        Lateral Sweep,  199
        Cross-Cheek Depression (Joker Line),  199
        Smile Block,  199
         Neck deformities,  199
        Platysmal Banding,  199
        Residual Jowling,  199
        Cobra Neck Deformity,  199
        Prominent Submandibular Glands,  200
         Preparation and positioning,  200
         Procedural approach,  200
        Postoperative Complications,  200
         Summary,  204
         Clinics care points,  204
         Disclosure,  204

        Update on Upper Lip Lift,  207

        By Gary Linkov
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  207
         Surgical technique,  207
        Preoperative Planning,  207
        Prep and Patient Positioning,  208
        Procedural Approach,  208
        Immediate Post-Procedural Care,  213
        Rehabilitation and Recovery,  213
        Short-Term Healing Phase,  213
        Long-Term Healing Phase,  213
         Potential complications,  213
         Summary,  215
         Clinics care points,  215
         Disclosure,  215

        Hairline Lowering: An Evolving Technique,  217

        By Kevin Ende
        Video content accompanies this article at http://www.advancesincosmeticsurgery.com.
         Introduction,  217
         Preoperative work-up,  217
         Procedure risks,  219
         Surgical technique,  220
         Postoperative course,  222
         Summary,  223
         Clinics care points,  223
         Disclosure,  223

        Update on Modalities for Reducing Preoperative and Postoperative Swelling,  225

        By Sana A. Bautista, Diana H. Kim, Elana Meer, and Sathyadeepak Ramesh
         Introduction,  225
         Pathophysiology of postoperative bruising and edema,  225
         Postoperative bruising and swelling in nonsurgical procedures,  226
        Incidence of Postoperative Bruising and Swelling,  226
        Mechanisms of Bruising and Swelling,  226
        Preoperative Evaluation,  227
        Techniques to Decrease Postoperative Swelling,  228
         Postoperative bruising and swelling in facial and periocular surgical procedures,  228
        Incidence,  228
        Mechanisms of Bruising and Swelling,  228
        Preoperative Evaluation,  229
        Techniques to Decrease Postoperative Swelling,  229
         Wound healing,  230
        General Approach to Wound Healing,  231
        Growth Factors,  231
        Platelet Gels,  231
        Stem Cells,  231
        Engineered Dermal Skin Substitutes,  231
        Vacuum-Assisted Therapy,  232
        Botulinum Toxin,  232
        Hyperbaric Oxygen,  232
        Light-Emitting DiodeTherapy,  232
        Topical Tretinoin,  232
        Low-Dose Insulin,  232
        Thyroid Hormone 1,  232
        Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Human Growth Hormone,  233
        Exosomes,  233
         Clinics care points,  233
         Disclosure,  233